```
# This file is part of QuTiP: Quantum Toolbox in Python.
#
# Copyright (c) 2011 and later, Paul D. Nation and Robert J. Johansson.
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
# met:
#
# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
# this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
#
# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
# notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
# documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# 3. Neither the name of the QuTiP: Quantum Toolbox in Python nor the names
# of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
# from this software without specific prior written permission.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
# "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
# LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
# PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
# HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
# SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
# LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
# DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
# THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
# (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
# OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
###############################################################################
"""
Module for the creation of composite quantum objects via the tensor product.
"""
__all__ = ['tensor', 'super_tensor', 'composite', 'tensor_contract']
import numpy as np
import scipy.sparse as sp
from qutip.qobj import Qobj
from qutip.permute import reshuffle
from qutip.superoperator import operator_to_vector
import qutip.settings
import qutip.superop_reps # Avoid circular dependency here.
[docs]def tensor(*args):
"""Calculates the tensor product of input operators.
Parameters
----------
args : array_like
``list`` or ``array`` of quantum objects for tensor product.
Returns
-------
obj : qobj
A composite quantum object.
Examples
--------
>>> tensor([sigmax(), sigmax()])
Quantum object: dims = [[2, 2], [2, 2]], \
shape = [4, 4], type = oper, isHerm = True
Qobj data =
[[ 0.+0.j 0.+0.j 0.+0.j 1.+0.j]
[ 0.+0.j 0.+0.j 1.+0.j 0.+0.j]
[ 0.+0.j 1.+0.j 0.+0.j 0.+0.j]
[ 1.+0.j 0.+0.j 0.+0.j 0.+0.j]]
"""
if not args:
raise TypeError("Requires at least one input argument")
if len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], (list, np.ndarray)):
# this is the case when tensor is called on the form:
# tensor([q1, q2, q3, ...])
qlist = args[0]
elif len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], Qobj):
# tensor is called with a single Qobj as an argument, do nothing
return args[0]
else:
# this is the case when tensor is called on the form:
# tensor(q1, q2, q3, ...)
qlist = args
if not all([isinstance(q, Qobj) for q in qlist]):
# raise error if one of the inputs is not a quantum object
raise TypeError("One of inputs is not a quantum object")
out = Qobj()
if qlist[0].issuper:
out.superrep = qlist[0].superrep
if not all([q.superrep == out.superrep for q in qlist]):
raise TypeError("In tensor products of superroperators, all must" +
"have the same representation")
out.isherm = True
for n, q in enumerate(qlist):
if n == 0:
out.data = q.data
out.dims = q.dims
else:
out.data = sp.kron(out.data, q.data, format='csr')
out.dims = [out.dims[0] + q.dims[0], out.dims[1] + q.dims[1]]
out.isherm = out.isherm and q.isherm
if not out.isherm:
out._isherm = None
return out.tidyup() if qutip.settings.auto_tidyup else out
[docs]def super_tensor(*args):
"""Calculates the tensor product of input superoperators, by tensoring
together the underlying Hilbert spaces on which each vectorized operator
acts.
Parameters
----------
args : array_like
``list`` or ``array`` of quantum objects with ``type="super"``.
Returns
-------
obj : qobj
A composite quantum object.
"""
if isinstance(args[0], list):
args = args[0]
# Check if we're tensoring vectors or superoperators.
if all(arg.issuper for arg in args):
if not all(arg.superrep == "super" for arg in args):
raise TypeError(
"super_tensor on type='super' is only implemented for "
"superrep='super'."
)
# Reshuffle the superoperators.
shuffled_ops = list(map(reshuffle, args))
# Tensor the result.
shuffled_tensor = tensor(shuffled_ops)
# Unshuffle and return.
out = reshuffle(shuffled_tensor)
out.superrep = args[0].superrep
return out
elif all(arg.isoperket for arg in args):
# Reshuffle the superoperators.
shuffled_ops = list(map(reshuffle, args))
# Tensor the result.
shuffled_tensor = tensor(shuffled_ops)
# Unshuffle and return.
out = reshuffle(shuffled_tensor)
return out
elif all(arg.isoperbra for arg in args):
return super_tensor(*(arg.dag() for arg in args)).dag()
else:
raise TypeError(
"All arguments must be the same type, "
"either super, operator-ket or operator-bra."
)
def _isoperlike(q):
return q.isoper or q.issuper
def _isketlike(q):
return q.isket or q.isoperket
def _isbralike(q):
return q.isbra or q.isoperbra
[docs]def composite(*args):
"""
Given two or more operators, kets or bras, returns the Qobj
corresponding to a composite system over each argument.
For ordinary operators and vectors, this is the tensor product,
while for superoperators and vectorized operators, this is
the column-reshuffled tensor product.
If a mix of Qobjs supported on Hilbert and Liouville spaces
are passed in, the former are promoted. Ordinary operators
are assumed to be unitaries, and are promoted using ``to_super``,
while kets and bras are promoted by taking their projectors and
using ``operator_to_vector(ket2dm(arg))``.
"""
# First step will be to ensure everything is a Qobj at all.
if not all(isinstance(arg, Qobj) for arg in args):
raise TypeError("All arguments must be Qobjs.")
# Next, figure out if we have something oper-like (isoper or issuper),
# or something ket-like (isket or isoperket). Bra-like we'll deal with
# by turning things into ket-likes and back.
if all(map(_isoperlike, args)):
# OK, we have oper/supers.
if any(arg.issuper for arg in args):
# Note that to_super does nothing to things
# that are already type=super, while it will
# promote unitaries to superunitaries.
return super_tensor(*map(qutip.superop_reps.to_super, args))
else:
# Everything's just an oper, so ordinary tensor products work.
return tensor(*args)
elif all(map(_isketlike, args)):
# Ket-likes.
if any(arg.isoperket for arg in args):
# We have a vectorized operator, we we may need to promote
# something.
return super_tensor(*(
arg if arg.isoperket
else operator_to_vector(qutip.states.ket2dm(arg))
for arg in args
))
else:
# Everything's ordinary, so we can use the tensor product here.
return tensor(*args)
elif all(map(_isbralike, args)):
# Turn into ket-likes and recurse.
return composite(*(arg.dag() for arg in args)).dag()
else:
raise TypeError("Unsupported Qobj types [{}].".format(
", ".join(arg.type for arg in args)
))
def flatten(l):
"""Flattens a list of lists to the first level.
Given a list containing a mix of scalars and lists,
flattens down to a list of the scalars within the original
list.
Examples
--------
>>> print(flatten([[[0], 1], 2]))
[0, 1, 2]
"""
if not isinstance(l, list):
return [l]
else:
return sum(map(flatten, l), [])
def _enumerate_flat(l, idx=0):
if not isinstance(l, list):
# Found a scalar, so return and increment.
return idx, idx + 1
else:
# Found a list, so append all the scalars
# from it and recurse to keep the increment
# correct.
acc = []
for elem in l:
labels, idx = _enumerate_flat(elem, idx)
acc.append(labels)
return acc, idx
def enumerate_flat(l):
"""Labels the indices at which scalars occur in a flattened list.
Given a list containing a mix of scalars and lists,
returns a list of the same structure, where each scalar
has been replaced by an index into the flattened list.
Examples
--------
>>> print(enumerate_flat([[[10], [20, 30]], 40]))
[[[0], [1, 2]], 3]
"""
return _enumerate_flat(l)[0]
def deep_remove(l, *what):
"""Removes scalars from all levels of a nested list.
Given a list containing a mix of scalars and lists,
returns a list of the same structure, but where one or
more scalars have been removed.
Examples
--------
>>> print(deep_remove([[[[0, 1, 2]], [3, 4], [5], [6, 7]]], 0, 5))
[[[[1, 2]], [3, 4], [], [6, 7]]]
"""
if isinstance(l, list):
# Make a shallow copy at this level.
l = l[:]
for to_remove in what:
if to_remove in l:
l.remove(to_remove)
else:
l = list(map(lambda elem: deep_remove(elem, to_remove), l))
return l
def unflatten(l, idxs):
"""Unflattens a list by a given structure.
Given a list of scalars and a deep list of indices
as produced by `flatten`, returns an "unflattened"
form of the list. This perfectly inverts `flatten`.
Examples
--------
>>> l = [[[10, 20, 30], [40, 50, 60]], [[70, 80, 90], [100, 110, 120]]]
>>> idxs = enumerate_flat(l)
>>> print(unflatten(flatten(l)), idxs) == l
True
"""
acc = []
for idx in idxs:
if isinstance(idx, list):
acc.append(unflatten(l, idx))
else:
acc.append(l[idx])
return acc
def _tensor_contract_single(arr, i, j):
"""
Contracts a dense tensor along a single index pair.
"""
if arr.shape[i] != arr.shape[j]:
raise ValueError("Cannot contract over indices of different length.")
idxs = np.arange(arr.shape[i])
sl = tuple(slice(None, None, None)
if idx not in (i, j) else idxs for idx in range(arr.ndim))
return np.sum(arr[sl], axis=0)
def _tensor_contract_dense(arr, *pairs):
"""
Contracts a dense tensor along one or more index pairs,
keeping track of how the indices are relabeled by the removal
of other indices.
"""
axis_idxs = list(range(arr.ndim))
for pair in pairs:
# axis_idxs.index effectively evaluates the mapping from
# original index labels to the labels after contraction.
arr = _tensor_contract_single(arr, *map(axis_idxs.index, pair))
list(map(axis_idxs.remove, pair))
return arr
[docs]def tensor_contract(qobj, *pairs):
"""Contracts a qobj along one or more index pairs.
Note that this uses dense representations and thus
should *not* be used for very large Qobjs.
Parameters
----------
pairs : tuple
One or more tuples ``(i, j)`` indicating that the
``i`` and ``j`` dimensions of the original qobj
should be contracted.
Returns
-------
cqobj : Qobj
The original Qobj with all named index pairs contracted
away.
"""
# Record and label the original dims.
dims = qobj.dims
dims_idxs = enumerate_flat(dims)
flat_dims = flatten(dims)
# Convert to dense first, since sparse won't support the reshaping we need.
qtens = qobj.data.toarray()
# Reshape by the flattened dims.
qtens = qtens.reshape(flat_dims)
# Contract out the indices from the flattened object.
qtens = _tensor_contract_dense(qtens, *pairs)
# Remove the contracted indexes from dims so we know how to
# reshape back.
contracted_idxs = deep_remove(dims_idxs, *flatten(list(map(list, pairs))))
contracted_dims = unflatten(flat_dims, contracted_idxs)
l_mtx_dims, r_mtx_dims = map(np.product, contracted_dims)
# Reshape back into a 2D matrix.
qmtx = qtens.reshape((l_mtx_dims, r_mtx_dims))
# Return back as a qobj.
return Qobj(qmtx, dims=contracted_dims, superrep=qobj.superrep)
import qutip.states
```

© Copyright 2011 and later, P.D. Nation, J.R. Johansson.

Last updated on Dec 31, 2014.

Created using Sphinx 1.2.3.