Change Log

QuTiP 5.0.0a2 (2023-09-06)

Features

  • Add support for different spectra types for bloch_redfield_tensor (#1951)

  • Improve qutip import times by setting logger names explicitly. (#1981, by Pieter Eendebak)

  • Change the order of parameters in expand_operator (#1991)

  • Add svn and solve to dispatched (#2002)

  • Added nm_mcsolve to provide support for Monte-Carlo simulations of master equations with possibly negative rates. The method implemented here is described in arXiv:2209.08958 [quant-ph]. (#2070 by pmenczel)

  • Add support for combining bosinic and fermionic HEOM baths (#2089)

  • Added __repr__ to QobjEvo (#2111 by lklivingstone)

  • Improve print(qutip.settings) by make it shorter (#2113 by tamakoshi2001)

  • Create the trace_oper_ket operation (#2126)

  • Speed up the construction of the RHS of the HEOM solver by a factor of 4x by converting the final step to Cython. (#2128)

  • Rewrite the stochastic solver to use the v5 solver interface. (#2131)

  • Add Qobj.get to extract underlying data in original format. (#2141)

  • Add qeye_like and qzero_like (#2153)

  • Add capacity to dispatch on Data (#2157)

  • Added fermionic annihilation and creation operators. (#2166 by khnikhil)

  • Changed arguments and applied colorblind_safe to functions in visualization.py (#2170 by Yuji Tamakoshi)

  • Changed arguments and applied colorblind_safe to plot_wigner_sphere and matrix_histogram in visualization.py (#2193 by Yuji Tamakoshi)

  • Added Dia data layer which represents operators as multi-diagonal matrices. (#2196)

  • Added support for animated plots. (#2203 by Yuji Tamakoshi)

  • Improved sampling algorithm for mcsolve (#2218 by Daniel Weiss)

  • Added support for early termination of map functions. (#2222)

Bug Fixes

  • Add missing state transformation to floquet_markov_mesolve (#1952 by christian512)

  • Added default _isherm value (True) for momentum and position operators. (#2032 by Asier Galicia)

  • Changed qutip-notebooks to qutip-tutorials and fixed the typo in the link redirecting to the changelog section in the PR template. (#2107 by Valan Baptist Mathuranayagam)

  • Increase missing colorbar padding for matrix_histogram_complex() from 0 to 0.05. (#2181 by SJUW)

  • Raise error on insufficient memory. (#2224)

  • Fixed fallback to fsesolve call in fmmesolve (#2225)

Removals

  • Remove qutip.control and replace with qutip_qtrl. (#2116)

  • Deleted _solve in countstat.py and used _data.solve. (#2120 by Yuji Tamakoshi)

  • Deprecate three_level_atom (#2221)

  • Deprecate orbital (#2223)

Documentation

  • Add a guide on Superoperators, Pauli Basis and Channel Contraction. (#1984 by christian512)

  • Added information on sec_cutoff to the documentation (#2136 by Gerardo Jose Suarez)

  • Added inherited members to API doc of MESolver, SMESolver, SSESolver, NonMarkovianMCSolver (#2167 by Cristian Emiliano Godinez Ramirez)

  • Corrected grammar in Bloch-Redfield master equation documentation (#2174 by Andrey Rakhubovsky)

Miscellaneous

  • Update scipy version requirement to 1.5+ (#1982 by Pieter Eendebak)

  • Added __all__ to qutip/measurements.py and qutip/core/semidefinite.py (#2103 by Rushiraj Gadhvi)

  • Restore towncrier check (#2105)

  • qutip.ipynbtools.version_table() can now be called without Cython installed (#2110 by Rushiraj Gadhvi)

  • Moved HTMLProgressBar from qutip/ipynbtools.py to qutip/ui/progressbar.py (#2112 by Harsh Khilawala)

  • Added new argument bc_type to take boundary conditions when creating QobjEvo (#2114 by Avatar Srinidhi P V )

  • Remove Windows build warning suppression. (#2119)

  • Optimize dispatcher by dispatching on positional only args. (#2135)

  • Clean semidefinite (#2138)

  • Migrate transfertensor.py to solver (#2142)

  • Add a test for progress_bar (#2150)

  • Enable cython 3 (#2151)

  • Added tests for visualization.py (#2192 by Yuji Tamakoshi)

  • Sorted arguments of sphereplot so that the order is similar to those of plot_spin_distribution (#2219 by Yuji Tamakoshi)

Version 5.0.0a1 (February 7, 2023)

QuTiP 5 is a redesign of many of the core components of QuTiP (Qobj, QobjEvo, solvers) to make them more consistent and more flexible.

Qobj may now be stored in either sparse or dense representations, and the two may be mixed sensibly as needed. QobjEvo is now used consistently throughout QuTiP, and the implementation has been substantially cleaned up. A new Coefficient class is used to represent the time-dependent factors inside QobjEvo.

The solvers have been rewritten to work well with the new data layer and the concept of Integrators which solve ODEs has been introduced. In future, new data layers may provide their own Integrators specialized to their representation of the underlying data.

Much of the user-facing API of QuTiP remains familiar, but there have had to be many small breaking changes. If we can make changes to easy migrating code from QuTiP 4 to QuTiP 5, please let us know.

Any extensive list of changes follows.

Contributors

QuTiP 5 has been a large effort by many people over the last three years.

In particular:

  • Jake Lishman led the implementation of the new data layer and coefficients.

  • Eric Giguère led the implementation of the new QobjEvo interface and solvers.

  • Boxi Li led the updating of QuTiP’s QIP support and the creation of qutip_qip.

Other members of the QuTiP Admin team have been heavily involved in reviewing, testing and designing QuTiP 5:

  • Alexander Pitchford

  • Asier Galicia

  • Nathan Shammah

  • Shahnawaz Ahmed

  • Neill Lambert

  • Simon Cross

Two Google Summer of Code contributors updated the tutorials and benchmarks to QuTiP 5:

  • Christian Staufenbiel updated many of the tutorials (<https://github.com/qutip/qutip-tutorials/>).

  • Xavier Sproken update the benchmarks (<https://github.com/qutip/qutip-benchmark/>).

Four experimental data layers backends were written either as part of Google Summer of Code or as separate projects. While these are still alpha quality, the helped significantly to test the data layer API:

  • qutip-tensorflow: a TensorFlow backend by Asier Galicia (<https://github.com/qutip/qutip-tensorflow>)

  • qutip-cupy: a CuPy GPU backend by Felipe Bivort Haiek (<https://github.com/qutip/qutip-cupy/>)`

  • qutip-tensornetwork: a TensorNetwork backend by Asier Galicia (<https://github.com/qutip/qutip-tensornetwork>)

  • qutip-jax: a JAX backend by Eric Giguère (<https://github.com/qutip/qutip-jax/>)

We have also had many other contributors, whose specific contributions are detailed below:

  • Pieter Eendebak (updated the required SciPy to 1.4+, #1982 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1982>).

  • Pieter Eendebak (reduced import times by setting logger names, #1981 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1981>)

  • Xavier Sproken (included C header files in the source distribution, #1971 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1971>)

  • Christian Staufenbiel (added support for multiple collapse operators to the Floquet solver, #1962 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1962>)

  • Christian Staufenbiel (fixed the basis used in the Floquet Master Equation solver, #1952 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1952>)

  • Christian Staufenbiel (allowed the bloch_redfield_tensor function to accept strings and callables for a_ops, #1951 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1951>)

  • Henrique Silvéro (allowed qutip_qip to be imported as qutip.qip, #1920 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1920>)

  • Florian Hopfmueller (added a vastly improved implementations of process_fidelity and average_gate_fidelity, #1712 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1712>, #1748 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1748>, #1788 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1788>)

  • Felipe Bivort Haiek (fixed inaccuracy in docstring of the dense implementation of negation, #1608 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1608/>)

  • Rajath Shetty (added support for specifying colors for individual points, vectors and states display by qutip.Bloch, #1335 <https://github.com/qutip/qutip/pull/1335>)

Qobj changes

Previously Qobj data was stored in a SciPy-like sparse matrix. Now the representation is flexible. Implementations for dense and sparse formats are included in QuTiP and custom implementations are possible. QuTiP’s performance on dense states and operators is significantly improved as a result.

Some highlights:

  • The data is still acessible via the .data attribute, but is now an instance of the underlying data type instead of a SciPy-like sparse matrix. The operations available in qutip.core.data may be used on .data, regardless of the data type.

  • Qobj with different data types may be mixed in arithmetic and other operations. A sensible output type will be automatically determined.

  • The new .to(...) method may be used to convert a Qobj from one data type to another. E.g. .to("dense") will convert to the dense representation and .to("csr") will convert to the sparse type.

  • Many Qobj methods and methods that create Qobj now accepted a dtype parameter that allows the data type of the returned Qobj to specified.

  • The new & operator may be used to obtain the tensor product.

  • The new @ operator may be used to obtain the matrix / operator product. bar @ ket returns a scalar.

  • The new .contract() method will collapse 1D subspaces of the dimensions of the Qobj.

  • The new .logm() method returns the matrix logarithm of an operator.

  • The methods .set_data, .get_data, .extract_state, .eliminate_states, .evaluate and .check_isunitary have been removed.

QobjEvo changes

The QobjEvo type for storing time-dependent quantum objects has been significantly expanded, standardized and extended. The time-dependent coefficients are now represented using a new Coefficient type that may be independently created and manipulated if required.

Some highlights:

  • The .compile() method has been removed. Coefficients specified as strings are automatically compiled if possible and the compilation is cached across different Python runs and instances.

  • Mixing coefficient types within a single Qobj is now supported.

  • Many new attributes were added to QobjEvo for convenience. Examples include .dims, .shape, .superrep and .isconstant.

  • Many old attributes such as .cte, .use_cython, .type, .const, and .coeff_file were removed.

  • A new Spline coefficient supports spline interpolations of different orders. The old Cubic_Spline coefficient has been removed.

  • The new .arguments(...) method allows additional arguments to the underlying coefficient functions to be updated.

  • The _step_func_coeff argument has been replaced by the order parameter. _step_func_coeff=False is equivalent to order=3. _step_func_coeff=True is equivalent to order=0. Higher values of order gives spline interpolations of higher orders.

Solver changes

The solvers in QuTiP have been heavily reworked and standardized. Under the hood solvers now make use of swappable ODE Integrators. Many Integrators are included (see the list below) and custom implementations are possible. Solvers now consistently accept a QobjEvo instance at the Hamiltonian or Liouvillian, or any object which can be passed to the QobjEvo constructor.

A breakdown of highlights follows.

All solvers:

  • Solver options are now supplied in an ordinary Python dict. qutip.Options is deprecated and returns a dict for backwards compatibility.

  • A specific ODE integrator may be selected by supplying a method option.

  • Each solver provides a class interface. Creating an instance of the class allows a solver to be run multiple times for the same system without having to repeatedly reconstruct the right-hand side of the ODE to be integrated.

  • A QobjEvo instance is accepted for most operators, e.g., H, c_ops, e_ops, a_ops.

  • The progress bar is now selected using the progress_bar option. A new progess bar using the tqdm Python library is provided.

  • Dynamic arguments, where the value of an operator depends on the current state of the evolution, have been removed. They may be re-implemented later if there is demand for them.

Integrators:

  • The SciPy zvode integrator is available with the BDF and Adams methods as bdf and adams.

  • The SciPy dop853 integrator (an eighth order Runge-Kutta method by Dormand & Prince) is available as dop853.

  • The SciPy lsoda integrator is available as lsoda.

  • QuTiP’s own implementation of Verner’s “most efficient” Runge-Kutta methods of order 7 and 9 are available as vern7 and vern9. See http://people.math.sfu.ca/~jverner/ for a description of the methods.

  • QuTiP’s own implementation of a solver that directly diagonalizes the the system to be integrated is available as diag. It only works on time-independent systems and is slow to setup, but once the diagonalization is complete, it generates solutions very quickly.

  • QuTiP’s own implementatoin of an approximate Krylov subspace integrator is available as krylov. This integrator is only usable with sesolve.

Result class:

  • A new .e_data attribute provides expectation values as a dictionary. Unlike .expect, the values are provided in a Python list rather than a numpy array, which better supports non-numeric types.

  • The contents of the .stats attribute changed significantly and is now more consistent across solvers.

Monte-Carlo Solver (mcsolve):

  • The system, H, may now be a super-operator.

  • The seed parameter now supports supplying numpy SeedSequence or Generator types.

  • The new timeout and target_tol parameters allow the solver to exit early if a timeout or target tolerance is reached.

  • The ntraj option no longer supports a list of numbers of trajectories. Instead, just run the solver multiple times and use the class MCSolver if setting up the solver uses a significant amount of time.

  • The map_func parameter has been replaced by the map option. In addition to the existing serial and parallel values, the value loky may be supplied to use the loky package to parallelize trajectories.

  • The result returned by mcsolve now supports calculating photocurrents and calculating the steady state over N trajectories.

  • The old parfor parallel execution function has been removed from qutip.parallel. Use parallel_map or loky_map instead.

Bloch-Redfield Master Equation Solver (brmesolve):

  • The a_ops and spectra support implementaitons been heavily reworked to reuse the techniques from the new Coefficient and QobjEvo classes.

  • The use_secular parameter has been removed. Use sec_cutoff=-1 instead.

  • The required tolerance is now read from qutip.settings.

Krylov Subspace Solver (krylovsolve):

  • The Krylov solver is now implemented using SESolver and the krylov ODE integrator. The function krylovsolve is maintained for convenience and now supports many more options.

  • The sparse parameter has been removed. Supply a sparse Qobj for the Hamiltonian instead.

Floquet Solver (fsesolve and fmmesolve):

  • The Floquet solver has been rewritten to use a new FloquetBasis class which manages the transformations from lab to Floquet basis and back.

  • Many of the internal methods used by the old Floquet solvers have been removed. The Floquet tensor may still be retried using the function floquet_tensor.

  • The Floquet Markov Master Equation solver has had many changes and new options added. The environment temperature may be specified using w_th, and the result states are stored in the lab basis and optionally in the Floquet basis using store_floquet_state.

  • The spectra functions supplied to fmmesolve must now be vectorized (i.e. accept and return numpy arrays for frequencies and densities) and must accept negative frequence (i.e. usually include a w > 0 factor so that the returned densities are zero for negative frequencies).

  • The number of sidebands to keep, kmax may only be supplied when using the FMESolver

  • The Tsteps parameter has been removed from both fsesolve and fmmesolve. The precompute option to FloquetBasis may be used instead.

Evolution of State Solver (essovle):

  • The function essolve has been removed. Use the diag integration method with sesolve or mesolve instead.

Steady-state solvers (steadystate module):

  • The method parameter and solver parameters have been separated. Previously they were mixed together in the method parameter.

  • The previous options are now passed as parameters to the steady state solver and mostly passed through to the underlying SciPy functions.

  • The logging and statistics have been removed.

Correlation functions (correlation module):

  • A new correlation_3op function has been added. It supports MESolver or BRMESolver.

  • The correlation, correlation_4op, and correlation_ss functions have been removed.

  • Support for calculating correlation with mcsolve has been removed.

Propagators (propagator module):

  • A class interface, qutip.Propagator, has been added for propagators.

  • Propagation of time-dependent systems is now supported using QobjEvo.

  • The unitary_mode and parallel options have been removed.

Correlation spectra (spectrum module):

  • The functions spectrum_ss and spectrum_pi have been removed and are now internal functions.

  • The use_pinv parameter for spectrum has been removed and the functionality merged into the solver parameter. Use solver="pi" instead.

QuTiP core

There have been numerous other small changes to core QuTiP features:

  • qft(...) the function that returns the quantum Fourier transform operator was moved from qutip.qip.algorithm into qutip.

  • The Bloch-Redfield solver tensor, brtensor, has been moved into qutip.core. See the section above on the Bloch-Redfield solver for details.

  • The functions mat2vec and vec2mat for transforming states to and from super-operator states have been renamed to stack_columns and unstack_columns.

  • The function liouvillian_ref has been removed. Used liouvillian instead.

  • The superoperator transforms super_to_choi, choi_to_super, choi_to_kraus, choi_to_chi and chi_to_choi have been removed. Used to_choi, to_super, to_kraus and to_chi instead.

  • All of the random object creation functions now accepted a numpy Generator as a seed.

  • The dims parameter of all random object creation functions has been removed. Supply the dimensions as the first parameter if explicit dimensions are required.

  • The function rand_unitary_haar has been removed. Use rand_unitary(distribution="haar") instead.

  • The functions rand_dm_hs and rand_dm_ginibre have been removed. Use rand_dm(distribution="hs") and rand_dm(distribution="ginibre") instead.

  • The function rand_ket_haar has been removed. Use rand_ket(distribution="haar") instead.

  • The measurement functions have had the target parameter for expanding the measurement operator removed. Used expand_operator to expand the operator instead.

  • qutip.Bloch now supports applying colours per-point, state or vector in add_point, add_states, and add_vectors.

QuTiP settings

Previously qutip.settings was an ordinary module. Now qutip.settings is an instance of a settings class. All the runtime modifiable settings for core operations are in qutip.settings.core. The other settings are not modifiable at runtime.

  • Removed load. reset and save functions.

  • Removed .debug, .fortran, .openmp_thresh.

  • New .compile stores the compilation options for compiled coefficients.

  • New .core["rtol"] core option gives the default relative tolerance used by QuTiP.

  • The absolute tolerance setting .atol has been moved to .core["atol"].

Package reorganization

  • qutip.qip has been moved into its own package, qutip-qip. Once installed, qutip-qip is available as either qutip.qip or qutip_qip. Some widely useful gates have been retained in qutip.gates.

  • qutip.lattice has been moved into its own package, qutip-lattice. It is available from <https://github.com/qutip/qutip-lattice>.

  • qutip.sparse has been removed. It contained the old sparse matrix representation and is replaced by the new implementation in qutip.data.

  • qutip.piqs functions are no longer available from the qutip namespace. They are accessible from qutip.piqs instead.

Miscellaneous

  • Support has been added for 64-bit integer sparse matrix indices, allowing sparse matrices with up to 2**63 rows and columns. This support needs to be enabled at compilation time by calling setup.py and passing --with-idxint-64.

Feature removals

  • Support for OpenMP has been removed. If there is enough demand and a good plan for how to organize it, OpenMP support may return in a future QuTiP release.

  • The qutip.parfor function has been removed. Use qutip.parallel_map instead.

  • qutip.graph has been removed and replaced by SciPy’s graph functions.

  • qutip.topology has been removed. It contained only one function berry_curvature.

  • The ~/.qutip/qutiprc config file is no longer supported. It contained settings for the OpenMP support.

Version 4.7.1 (December 11, 2022)

This is a bugfix release for QuTiP 4.7.X. In addition to the minor fixes listed below, the release adds builds for Python 3.11 and support for packaging 22.0.

Features

  • Improve qutip import times by setting logger names explicitly. (#1980)

Bug Fixes

  • Change floquet_master_equation_rates(…) to use an adaptive number of time steps scaled by the number of sidebands, kmax. (#1961)

  • Change fidelity(A, B) to use the reduced fidelity formula for pure states which is more numerically efficient and accurate. (#1964)

  • Change brmesolve to raise an exception when ode integration is not successful. (#1965)

  • Backport fix for IPython helper Bloch._repr_svg_ from dev.major. Previously the print_figure function returned bytes, but since ipython/ipython#5452 (in 2014) it returns a Unicode string. This fix updates QuTiP’s helper to match. (#1970)

  • Fix correlation for case where only the collapse operators are time dependent. (#1979)

  • Fix the hinton visualization method to plot the matrix instead of its transpose. (#2011)

  • Fix the hinton visualization method to take into account all the matrix coefficients to set the squares scale, instead of only the diagonal coefficients. (#2012)

  • Fix parsing of package versions in setup.py to support packaging 22.0. (#2037)

  • Add back .qu suffix to objects saved with qsave and loaded with qload. The suffix was accidentally removed in QuTiP 4.7.0. (#2038)

  • Add a default max_step to processors. (#2040)

Documentation

  • Add towncrier for managing the changelog. (#1927)

  • Update the version of numpy used to build documentation to 1.22.0. (#1940)

  • Clarify returned objects from bloch_redfield_tensor(). (#1950)

  • Update Floquet Markov solver docs. (#1958)

  • Update the roadmap and ideas to show completed work as of August 2022. (#1967)

Miscellaneous

  • Return TypeError instead of Exception for type error in sesolve argument. (#1924)

  • Add towncrier draft build of changelog to CI tests. (#1946)

  • Add Python 3.11 to builds. (#2041)

  • Simplify version parsing by using packaging.version.Version. (#2043)

  • Update builds to use cibuildwheel 2.11, and to build with manylinux2014 on Python 3.8 and 3.9, since numpy and SciPy no longer support manylinux2010 on those versions of Python. (#2047)

Version 4.7.0 (April 13, 2022)

This release sees the addition of two new solvers – qutip.krylovsolve based on the Krylov subspace approximation and qutip.nonmarkov.heom that reimplements the BoFiN HEOM solver.

Bloch sphere rendering gained support for drawing arcs and lines on the sphere, and for setting the transparency of rendered points and vectors, Hinton plots gained support for specifying a coloring style, and matrix histograms gained better default colors and more flexible styling options.

Other significant improvements include better scaling of the Floquet solver, support for passing Path objects when saving and loading files, support for passing callable functions as e_ops to mesolve and sesolve, and faster state number enumeration and Husimi Q functions.

Import bugfixes include some bugs affecting plotting with matplotlib 3.5 and fixing support for qutrits (and other non-qubit) quantum circuits.

The many other small improvements, bug fixes, documentation enhancements, and behind the scenese development changes are included in the list below.

QuTiP 4.7.X will be the last series of releases for QuTiP 4. Patch releases will continue for the 4.7.X series but the main development effort will move to QuTiP 5.

The many, many contributors who filed issues, submitted or reviewed pull requests, and improved the documentation for this release are listed next to their contributions below. Thank you to all of you.

Improvements

  • MAJOR Added krylovsolve as a new solver based on krylov subspace approximation. (#1739 by Emiliano Fortes)

  • MAJOR Imported BoFiN HEOM (https://github.com/tehruhn/bofin/) into QuTiP and replaced the HEOM solver with a compatibility wrapper around BoFiN bosonic solver. (#1601, #1726, and #1724 by Simon Cross, Tarun Raheja and Neill Lambert)

  • MAJOR Added support for plotting lines and arcs on the Bloch sphere. (#1690 by Gaurav Saxena, Asier Galicia and Simon Cross)

  • Added transparency parameter to the add_point, add_vector and add_states methods in the Bloch and Bloch3d classes. (#1837 by Xavier Spronken)

  • Support Path objects in qutip.fileio. (#1813 by Adrià Labay)

  • Improved the weighting in steadystate solver, so that the default weight matches the documented behaviour and the dense solver applies the weights in the same manner as the sparse solver. (#1275 and #1802 by NS2 Group at LPS and Simon Cross)

  • Added a color_style option to the hinton plotting function. (#1595 by Cassandra Granade)

  • Improved the scaling of floquet_master_equation_rates and floquet_master_equation_tensor and fixed transposition and basis change errors in floquet_master_equation_tensor and floquet_markov_mesolve. (#1248 by Camille Le Calonnec, Jake Lishman and Eric Giguère)

  • Removed linspace_with and view_methods from qutip.utilities. For the former it is far better to use numpy.linspace and for the later Python’s in-built help function or other tools. (#1680 by Eric Giguère)

  • Added support for passing callable functions as e_ops to mesolve and sesolve. (#1655 by Marek Narożniak)

  • Added the function steadystate_floquet, which returns the “effective” steadystate of a periodic driven system. (#1660 by Alberto Mercurio)

  • Improved mcsolve memory efficiency by not storing final states when they are not needed. (#1669 by Eric Giguère)

  • Improved the default colors and styling of matrix_histogram and provided additional styling options. (#1573 and #1628 by Mahdi Aslani)

  • Sped up state_number_enumerate, state_number_index, state_index_number, and added some error checking. enr_state_dictionaries now returns a list for idx2state. (#1604 by Johannes Feist)

  • Added new Husimi Q algorithms, improving the speed for density matrices, and giving a near order-of-magnitude improvement when calculating the Q function for many different states, using the new qutip.QFunc class, instead of the qutip.qfunc function. (#934 and #1583 by Daniel Weigand and Jake Lishman)

  • Updated licence holders with regards to new governance model, and remove extraneous licensing information from source files. (#1579 by Jake Lishman)

  • Removed the vendored copy of LaTeX’s qcircuit package which is GPL licensed. We now rely on the package being installed by user. It is installed by default with TexLive. (#1580 by Jake Lishman)

  • The signatures of rand_ket and rand_ket_haar were changed to allow N (the size of the random ket) to be determined automatically when dims are specified. (#1509 by Purva Thakre)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix circuit index used when plotting circuits with non-reversed states. (#1847 by Christian Staufenbiel)

  • Changed implementation of qutip.orbital to use scipy.special.spy_harm to remove bugs in angle interpretation. (#1844 by Christian Staufenbiel)

  • Fixed QobjEvo.tidyup to use settings.auto_tidyup_atol when removing small elements in sparse matrices. (#1832 by Eric Giguère)

  • Ensured that tidyup’s default tolerance is read from settings at each call. (#1830 by Eric Giguère)

  • Fixed scipy.sparse deprecation warnings raised by qutip.fast_csr_matrix. (#1827 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed rendering of vectors on the Bloch sphere when using matplotlib 3.5 and above. (#1818 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed the displaying of Lattice1d instances and their unit cells. Previously calling them raised exceptions in simple cases. (#1819, #1697 and #1702 by Simon Cross and Saumya Biswas)

  • Fixed the displaying of the title for hinton and matrix_histogram plots when a title is given. Previously the supplied title was not displayed. (#1707 by Vladimir Vargas-Calderón)

  • Removed an incorrect check on the initial state dimensions in the QubitCircuit constructor. This allows, for example, the construction of qutrit circuits. (#1807 by Boxi Li)

  • Fixed the checking of method and offset parameters in coherent and coherent_dm. (#1469 and #1741 by Joseph Fox-Rabinovitz and Simon Cross)

  • Removed the Hamiltonian saved in the sesolve solver results. (#1689 by Eric Giguère)

  • Fixed a bug in rand_herm with pos_def=True and density>0.5 where the diagonal was incorrectly filled. (#1562 by Eric Giguère)

Documentation Improvements

  • Added contributors image to the documentation. (#1828 by Leonard Assis)

  • Fixed the Theory of Quantum Information bibliography link. (#1840 by Anto Luketina)

  • Fixed minor grammar errors in the dynamics guide. (#1822 by Victor Omole)

  • Fixed many small documentation typos. (#1569 by Ashish Panigrahi)

  • Added Pulser to the list of libraries that use QuTiP. (#1570 by Ashish Panigrahi)

  • Corrected typo in the states and operators guide. (#1567 by Laurent Ajdnik)

  • Converted http links to https. (#1555 by Jake Lishamn)

Developer Changes

  • Add GitHub actions test run on windows-latest. (#1853 and #1855 by Simon Cross)

  • Bumped the version of pillow used to build documentation from 9.0.0 to 9.0.1. (#1835 by dependabot)

  • Migrated the qutip.superop_reps tests to pytest. (#1825 by Felipe Bivort Haiek)

  • Migrated the qutip.steadystates tests to pytest. (#1679 by Eric Giguère)

  • Changed the README.md CI badge to the GitHub Actions badge. (#1581 by Jake Lishman)

  • Updated CodeClimate configuration to treat our Python source files as Python 3. (#1577 by Jake Lishman)

  • Reduced cyclomatic complexity in qutip._mkl. (#1576 by Jake Lishman)

  • Fixed PEP8 warnings in qutip.control, qutip.mcsolve, qutip.random_objects, and qutip.stochastic. (#1575 by Jake Lishman)

  • Bumped the version of urllib3 used to build documentation from 1.26.4 to 1.26.5. (#1563 by dependabot)

  • Moved tests to GitHub Actions. (#1551 by Jake Lishman)

  • The GitHub contributing guidelines were re-added and updated to point to the more complete guidelines in the documentation. (#1549 by Jake Lishman)

  • The release documentation was reworked after the initial 4.6.1 to match the actual release process. (#1544 by Jake Lishman)

Version 4.6.3 (February 9, 2022)

This minor release adds support for numpy 1.22 and Python 3.10 and removes some blockers for running QuTiP on the Apple M1.

The performance of the enr_destroy, state_number_enumerate and hadamard_transform functions was drastically improved (up to 70x or 200x faster in some common cases), and support for the drift Hamiltonian was added to the qutip.qip Processor.

The qutip.hardware_info module was removed as part of adding support for the Apple M1. We hope the removal of this little-used module does not adversely affect many users – it was largely unrelated to QuTiP’s core functionality and its presence was a continual source of blockers to importing qutip on new or changed platforms.

A new check on the dimensions of Qobj’s were added to prevent segmentation faults when invalid shape and dimension combinations were passed to Cython code.

In addition, there were many small bugfixes, documentation improvements, and improvements to our building and testing processes.

Improvements

  • The enr_destroy function was made ~200x faster in many simple cases. (#1593 by Johannes Feist)

  • The state_number_enumerate function was made significantly faster. (#1594 by Johannes Feist)

  • Added the missing drift Hamiltonian to the method run_analytically of Processor. (#1603 Boxi Li)

  • The hadamard_transform was made much faster, e.g., ~70x faster for N=10. (#1688 by Asier Galicia)

  • Added support for computing the power of a scalar-like Qobj. (#1692 by Asier Galicia)

  • Removed the hardware_info module. This module wasn’t used inside QuTiP and regularly broke when new operating systems were released, and in particular prevented importing QuTiP on the Apple M1. (#1754, #1758 by Eric Giguère)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed support for calculating the propagator of a density matrix with collapse operators. QuTiP 4.6.2 introduced extra sanity checks on the dimensions of inputs to mesolve (Fix mesolve segfault with bad initial state #1459), but the propagator function’s calls to mesolve violated these checks by supplying initial states with the dimensions incorrectly set. propagator now calls mesolve with the correct dimensions set on the initial state. (#1588 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed support for calculating the propagator for a superoperator without collapse operators. This functionality was not tested by the test suite and appears to have broken sometime during 2019. Tests have now been added and the code breakages fixed. (#1588 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed the ignoring of the random number seed passed to rand_dm in the case where pure was set to true. (#1600 Pontus Wikståhl)

  • Fixed qutip.control.optimize_pulse support for sparse eigenvector decomposition with the Qobj oper_dtype (the Qobj oper_dtype is the default for large systems). (#1621 by Simon Cross)

  • Removed qutip.control.optimize_pulse support for scipy.sparse.csr_matrix and generic ndarray-like matrices. Support for these was non-functional. (#1621 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed errors in the calculation of the Husimi spin_q_function and spin_wigner functions and added tests for them. (#1632 by Mark Johnson)

  • Fixed setting of OpenMP compilation flag on Linux. Previously when compiling the OpenMP functions were compiled without parallelization. (#1693 by Eric Giguère)

  • Fixed tracking the state of the Bloch sphere figure and axes to prevent exceptions during rendering. (#1619 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed compatibility with numpy configuration in numpy’s 1.22.0 release. (#1752 by Matthew Treinish)

  • Added dims checks for e_ops passed to solvers to prevent hanging the calling process when e_ops of the wrong dimensions were passed. (#1778 by Eric Giguère)

  • Added a check in Qobj constructor that the respective members of data.shape cannot be larger than what the corresponding dims could contain to prevent a segmentation fault caused by inconsistencies between dims and shapes. (#1783, #1785, #1784 by Lajos Palanki & Eric Giguère)

Documentation Improvements

  • Added docs for the num_cbits parameter of the QubitCircuit class. (#1652 by Jon Crall)

  • Fixed the parameters in the call to fsesolve in the Floquet guide. (#1675 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed the description of random number usage in the Monte Carlo solver guide. (#1677 by Ian Thorvaldson)

  • Fixed the rendering of equation numbers in the documentation (they now appear on the right as expected, not above the equation). (#1678 by Simon Cross)

  • Updated the installation requirements in the documentation to match what is specified in setup.py. (#1715 by Asier Galicia)

  • Fixed a typo in the chi_to_choi documentation. Previously the documentation mixed up chi and choi. (#1731 by Pontus Wikståhl)

  • Improved the documentation for the stochastic equation solvers. Added links to notebooks with examples, API doumentation and external references. (#1743 by Leonardo Assis)

  • Fixed a typo in qutip.settings in the settings guide. (#1786 by Mahdi Aslani)

  • Made numerous small improvements to the text of the QuTiP basics guide. (#1768 by Anna Naden)

  • Made a small phrasing improvement to the README. (#1790 by Rita Abani)

Developer Changes

  • Improved test coverage of states and operators functions. (#1578 by Eric Giguère)

  • Fixed test_interpolate mcsolve use (#1645 by Eric Giguère)

  • Ensured figure plots are explicitly closed during tests so that the test suite passes when run headless under Xvfb. (#1648 by Simon Cross)

  • Bumped the version of pillow used to build documentation from 8.2.0 to 9.0.0. (#1654, #1760 by dependabot)

  • Bumped the version of babel used to build documentation from 2.9.0 to 2.9.1. (#1695 by dependabot)

  • Bumped the version of numpy used to build documentation from 1.19.5 to 1.21.0. (#1767 by dependabot)

  • Bumped the version of ipython used to build documentation from 7.22.0 to 7.31.1. (#1780 by dependabot)

  • Rename qutip.bib to CITATION.bib to enable GitHub’s citation support. (#1662 by Ashish Panigrahi)

  • Added tests for simdiags. (#1681 by Eric Giguère)

  • Added support for specifying the numpy version in the CI test matrix. (#1696 by Simon Cross)

  • Fixed the skipping of the dnorm metric tests if cvxpy is not installed. Previously all metrics tests were skipped by accident. (#1704 by Florian Hopfmueller)

  • Added bug report, feature request and other options to the GitHub issue reporting template. (#1728 by Aryaman Kolhe)

  • Updated the build process to support building on Python 3.10 by removing the build requirement for numpy < 1.20 and replacing it with a requirement on oldest-supported-numpy. (#1747 by Simon Cross)

  • Updated the version of cibuildwheel used to build wheels to 2.3.0. (#1747, #1751 by Simon Cross)

  • Added project urls to linking to the source repository, issue tracker and documentation to setup.cfg. (#1779 by Simon Cross)

  • Added a numpy 1.22 and Python 3.10 build to the CI test matrix. (#1777 by Simon Cross)

  • Ignore deprecation warnings from SciPy 1.8.0 scipy.sparse.X imports in CI tests. (#1797 by Simon Cross)

  • Add building of wheels for Python 3.10 to the cibuildwheel job. (#1796 by Simon Cross)

Version 4.6.2 (June 2, 2021)

This minor release adds a function to calculate the quantum relative entropy, fixes a corner case in handling time-dependent Hamiltonians in mesolve and adds back support for a wider range of matplotlib versions when plotting or animating Bloch spheres.

It also adds a section in the README listing the papers which should be referenced while citing QuTiP.

Improvements

  • Added a “Citing QuTiP” section to the README, containing a link to the QuTiP papers. (#1554)

  • Added entropy_relative which returns the quantum relative entropy between two density matrices. (#1553)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed Bloch sphere distortion when using Matplotlib >= 3.3.0. (#1496)

  • Removed use of integer-like floats in math.factorial since it is deprecated as of Python 3.9. (#1550)

  • Simplified call to ffmpeg used in the the Bloch sphere animation tutorial to work with recent versions of ffmpeg. (#1557)

  • Removed blitting in Bloch sphere FuncAnimation example. (#1558)

  • Added a version checking condition to handle specific functionalities depending on the matplotlib version. (#1556)

  • Fixed mesolve handling of time-dependent Hamiltonian with a custom tlist and c_ops. (#1561)

Developer Changes

  • Read documentation version and release from the VERSION file.

Version 4.6.1 (May 4, 2021)

This minor release fixes bugs in QIP gate definitions, fixes building from the source tarball when git is not installed and works around an MKL bug in versions of SciPy <= 1.4.

It also adds the [full] pip install target so that pip install qutip[full] installs qutip and all of its optional and developer dependencies.

Improvements

  • Add the [full] pip install target (by Jake Lishman)

Bug Fixes

  • Work around pointer MKL eigh bug in SciPy <= 1.4 (by Felipe Bivort Haiek)

  • Fix berkeley, swapalpha and cz gate operations (by Boxi Li)

  • Expose the CPHASE control gate (by Boxi Li)

  • Fix building from the sdist when git is not installed (by Jake Lishman)

Developer Changes

  • Move the qutip-doc documentation into the qutip repository (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix warnings in documentation build (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix warnings in pytest runs and make pytest treat warnings as errors (by Jake Lishman)

  • Add Simon Cross as author (by Simon Cross)

Version 4.6.0 (April 11, 2021)

This release brings improvements for qubit circuits, including a pulse scheduler, measurement statistics, reading/writing OpenQASM and optimisations in the circuit simulations.

This is the first release to have full binary wheel releases on pip; you can now do pip install qutip on almost any machine to get a correct version of the package without needing any compilers set up. The support for Numpy 1.20 that was first added in QuTiP 4.5.3 is present in this version as well, and the same build considerations mentioned there apply here too. If building using the now-supported PEP 517 mechanisms (e.g. python -mbuild /path/to/qutip), all build dependencies will be correctly satisfied.

Improvements

  • MAJOR Add saving, loading and resetting functionality to qutip.settings for easy re-configuration. (by Eric Giguère)

  • MAJOR Add a quantum gate scheduler in qutip.qip.scheduler, to help parallelise the operations of quantum gates. This supports two scheduling modes: as late as possible, and as soon as possible. (by Boxi Li)

  • MAJOR Improved qubit circuit simulators, including OpenQASM support and performance optimisations. (by Sidhant Saraogi)

  • MAJOR Add tools for quantum measurements and their statistics. (by Simon Cross and Sidhant Saraogi)

  • Add support for Numpy 1.20. QuTiP should be compiled against a version of Numpy >= 1.16.6 and < 1.20 (note: does _not_ include 1.20 itself), but such an installation is compatible with any modern version of Numpy. Source installations from pip understand this constraint.

  • Improve the error message when circuit plotting fails. (by Boxi Li)

  • Add support for parsing M1 Mac hardware information. (by Xiaoliang Wu)

  • Add more single-qubit gates and controlled gates. (by Mateo Laguna and Martín Sande Costa)

  • Support decomposition of X, Y and Z gates in circuits. (by Boxi Li)

  • Refactor QubitCircuit.resolve_gate() (by Martín Sande Costa)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix dims in the returns from Qobj.eigenstates on superoperators. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Calling Numpy ufuncs on Qobj will now correctly raise a TypeError rather than returning a nonsense ndarray. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Convert segfault into Python exception when creating too-large tensor products. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Correctly set num_collapse in the output of mesolve. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix ptrace when all subspaces are being kept, or the subspaces are passed in order. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix sorting bug in Bloch3d.add_points(). (by pschindler)

  • Fix invalid string literals in docstrings and some unclosed files. (by Élie Gouzien)

  • Fix Hermicity tests for matrices with values that are within the tolerance of 0. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix the trace norm being incorrectly reported as 0 for small matrices. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix issues with dnorm when using CVXPy 1.1 with sparse matrices. (by Felipe Bivort Haiek)

  • Fix segfaults in mesolve when passed a bad initial Qobj as the state. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix sparse matrix construction in PIQS when using Scipy 1.6.1. (by Drew Parsons)

  • Fix zspmv_openmp.cpp missing from the pip sdist. (by Christoph Gohlke)

  • Fix correlation functions throwing away imaginary components. (by Asier Galicia Martinez)

  • Fix QubitCircuit.add_circuit() for SWAP gate. (by Canoming)

  • Fix the broken LaTeX image conversion. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix gate resolution of the FREDKIN gate. (by Bo Yang)

  • Fix broken formatting in docstrings. (by Jake Lishman)

Deprecations

  • eseries, essolve and ode2es are all deprecated, pending removal in QuTiP 5.0. These are legacy functions and classes that have been left unmaintained for a long time, and their functionality is now better achieved with QobjEvo or mesolve.

Developer Changes

  • MAJOR Overhaul of setup and packaging code to make it satisfy PEP 517, and move the build to a matrix on GitHub Actions in order to release binary wheels on pip for all major platforms and supported Python versions. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Default arguments in Qobj are now None rather than mutable types. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fixed comsumable iterators being used to parametrise some tests, preventing the testing suite from being re-run within the same session. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Remove unused imports, simplify some floats and remove unnecessary list conversions. (by jakobjakobson13)

  • Improve Travis jobs matrix for specifying the testing containers. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix coverage reporting on Travis. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Added a pyproject.toml file. (by Simon Humpohl and Eric Giguère)

  • Add doctests to documentation. (by Sidhant Saraogi)

  • Fix all warnings in the documentation build. (by Jake Lishman)

Version 4.5.3 (February 19, 2021)

This patch release adds support for Numpy 1.20, made necessary by changes to how array-like objects are handled. There are no other changes relative to version 4.5.2.

Users building from source should ensure that they build against Numpy versions >= 1.16.6 and < 1.20 (not including 1.20 itself), but after that or for those installing from conda, an installation will support any current Numpy version >= 1.16.6.

Improvements

  • Add support for Numpy 1.20. QuTiP should be compiled against a version of Numpy >= 1.16.6 and < 1.20 (note: does _not_ include 1.20 itself), but such an installation is compatible with any modern version of Numpy. Source installations from pip understand this constraint.

Version 4.5.2 (July 14, 2020)

This is predominantly a hot-fix release to add support for Scipy 1.5, due to changes in private sparse matrix functions that QuTiP also used.

Improvements

  • Add support for Scipy 1.5. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Improved speed of zcsr_inner, which affects Qobj.overlap. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Better error messages when installation requirements are not satisfied. (by Eric Giguère)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix zcsr_proj acting on matrices with unsorted indices. (by Jake Lishman)

  • Fix errors in Milstein’s heterodyne. (by Eric Giguère)

  • Fix datatype bug in qutip.lattice module. (by Boxi Li)

  • Fix issues with eigh on Mac when using OpenBLAS. (by Eric Giguère)

Developer Changes

  • Converted more of the codebase to PEP 8.

  • Fix several instances of unsafe mutable default values and unsafe is comparisons.

Version 4.5.1 (May 15, 2020)

Improvements

  • husimi and wigner now accept half-integer spin (by maij)

  • Better error messages for failed string coefficient compilation. (issue raised by nohchangsuk)

Bug Fixes

  • Safer naming for temporary files. (by Eric Giguère)

  • Fix clebsch function for half-integer (by Thomas Walker)

  • Fix randint’s dtype to uint32 for compatibility with Windows. (issue raised by Boxi Li)

  • Corrected stochastic’s heterodyne’s m_ops (by eliegenois)

  • Mac pool use spawn. (issue raised by goerz)

  • Fix typos in QobjEvo._shift. (by Eric Giguère)

  • Fix warning on Travis CI. (by Ivan Carvalho)

Deprecations

  • qutip.graph functions will be deprecated in QuTiP 5.0 in favour of scipy.sparse.csgraph.

Developer Changes

  • Add Boxi Li to authors. (by Alex Pitchford)

  • Skip some tests that cause segfaults on Mac. (by Nathan Shammah and Eric Giguère)

  • Use Python 3.8 for testing on Mac and Linux. (by Simon Cross and Eric Giguère)

Version 4.5.0 (January 31, 2020)

Improvements

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Added qip.noise, a module with pulse level description of quantum circuits allowing to model various types of noise and devices (by Boxi Li).

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Added qip.lattice, a module for the study of lattice dynamics in 1D (by Saumya Biswas).

  • Migrated testing from Nose to PyTest (by Tarun Raheja).

  • Optimized testing for PyTest and removed duplicated test runners (by Jake Lishman).

  • Deprecated importing qip functions to the qutip namespace (by Boxi Li).

  • Added the possibility to define non-square superoperators relevant for quantum circuits (by Arne Grimsmo and Josh Combes).

  • Implicit tensor product for qeye, qzero and basis (by Jake Lishman).

  • QObjEvo no longer requires Cython for string coefficient (by Eric Giguère).

  • Added marked tests for faster tests in testing.run() and made faster OpenMP benchmarking in CI (by Eric Giguère).

  • Added entropy and purity for Dicke density matrices, refactored into more general dicke_trace (by Nathan Shammah).

  • Added option for specifying resolution in Bloch.save function (by Tarun Raheja).

  • Added information related to the value of hbar in wigner and continuous_variables (by Nicolas Quesada).

  • Updated requirements for scipy 1.4 (by Eric Giguère).

  • Added previous lead developers to the qutip.about() message (by Nathan Shammah).

  • Added improvements to Qobj introducing the inv method and making the partial trace, ptrace, faster, keeping both sparse and dense methods (by Eric Giguère).

  • Allowed general callable objects to define a time-dependent Hamiltonian (by Eric Giguère).

  • Added feature so that QobjEvo no longer requires Cython for string coefficients (by Eric Giguère).

  • Updated authors list on Github and added my binder link (by Nathan Shammah).

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed PolyDataMapper construction for Bloch3d (by Sam Griffiths).

  • Fixed error checking for null matrix in essolve (by Nathan Shammah).

  • Fixed name collision for parallel propagator (by Nathan Shammah).

  • Fixed dimensional incongruence in propagator (by Nathan Shammah)

  • Fixed bug by rewriting clebsch function based on long integer fraction (by Eric Giguère).

  • Fixed bugs in QobjEvo’s args depending on state and added solver tests using them (by Eric Giguère).

  • Fixed bug in sesolve calculation of average states when summing the timeslot states (by Alex Pitchford).

  • Fixed bug in steadystate solver by removing separate arguments for MKL and Scipy (by Tarun Raheja).

  • Fixed Bloch.add_ponts by setting edgecolor = None in plot_points (by Nathan Shammah).

  • Fixed error checking for null matrix in essolve solver affecting also ode2es (by Peter Kirton).

  • Removed unnecessary shebangs in .pyx and .pxd files (by Samesh Lakhotia).

  • Fixed sesolve and import of os in codegen (by Alex Pitchford).

  • Updated plot_fock_distribution by removing the offset value 0.4 in the plot (by Rajiv-B).

Version 4.4.1 (August 29, 2019)

Improvements

  • QobjEvo do not need to start from 0 anymore (by Eric Giguère).

  • Add a quantum object purity function (by Nathan Shammah and Shahnawaz Ahmed).

  • Add step function interpolation for array time-coefficient (by Boxi Li).

  • Generalize expand_oper for arbitrary dimensions, and new method for cyclic permutations of given target cubits (by Boxi Li).

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed the pickling but that made solver unable to run in parallel on Windows (Thank lrunze for reporting)

  • Removed warning when mesolve fall back on sesolve (by Michael Goerz).

  • Fixed dimension check and confusing documentation in random ket (by Yariv Yanay).

  • Fixed Qobj isherm not working after using Qobj.permute (Thank llorz1207 for reporting).

  • Correlation functions call now properly handle multiple time dependant functions (Thank taw181 for reporting).

  • Removed mutable default values in mesolve/sesolve (by Michael Goerz).

  • Fixed simdiag bug (Thank Croydon-Brixton for reporting).

  • Better support of constant QobjEvo (by Boxi Li).

  • Fixed potential cyclic import in the control module (by Alexander Pitchford).

Version 4.4.0 (July 03, 2019)

Improvements

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Added methods and techniques to the stochastic solvers (by Eric Giguère) which allows to use a much broader set of solvers and much more efficiently.

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Optimization of the montecarlo solver (by Eric Giguère). Computation are faster in many cases. Collapse information available to time dependant information.

  • Added the QObjEvo class and methods (by Eric Giguère), which is used behind the scenes by the dynamical solvers, making the code more efficient and tidier. More built-in function available to string coefficients.

  • The coefficients can be made from interpolated array with variable timesteps and can obtain state information more easily. Time-dependant collapse operator can have multiple terms.

  • New wigner_transform and plot_wigner_sphere function. (by Nithin Ramu).

  • ptrace is faster and work on bigger systems, from 15 Qbits to 30 Qbits.

  • QIP module: added the possibility for user-defined gates, added the possibility to remove or add gates in any point of an already built circuit, added the molmer_sorensen gate, and fixed some bugs (by Boxi Li).

  • Added the quantum Hellinger distance to qutip.metrics (by Wojciech Rzadkowski).

  • Implemented possibility of choosing a random seed (by Marek Marekyggdrasil).

  • Added a code of conduct to Github.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed bug that made QuTiP incompatible with SciPy 1.3.

Version 4.3.0 (July 14, 2018)

Improvements

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Added the Permutational Invariant Quantum Solver (PIQS) module (by Nathan Shammah and Shahnawaz Ahmed) which allows the simluation of large TLSs ensembles including collective and local Lindblad dissipation. Applications range from superradiance to spin squeezing.

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Added a photon scattering module (by Ben Bartlett) which can be used to study scattering in arbitrary driven systems coupled to some configuration of output waveguides.

  • Cubic_Spline functions as time-dependent arguments for the collapse operators in mesolve are now allowed.

  • Added a faster version of bloch_redfield_tensor, using components from the time-dependent version. About 3x+ faster for secular tensors, and 10x+ faster for non-secular tensors.

  • Computing Q.overlap() [inner product] is now ~30x faster.

  • Added projector method to Qobj class.

  • Added fast projector method, Q.proj().

  • Computing matrix elements, Q.matrix_element is now ~10x faster.

  • Computing expectation values for ket vectors using expect is now ~10x faster.

  • Q.tr() is now faster for small Hilbert space dimensions.

  • Unitary operator evolution added to sesolve

  • Use OPENMP for tidyup if installed.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed bug that stopped simdiag working for python 3.

  • Fixed semidefinite cvxpy Variable and Parameter.

  • Fixed iterative lu solve atol keyword issue.

  • Fixed unitary op evolution rhs matrix in ssesolve.

  • Fixed interpolating function to return zero outside range.

  • Fixed dnorm complex casting bug.

  • Fixed control.io path checking issue.

  • Fixed ENR fock dimension.

  • Fixed hard coded options in propagator ‘batch’ mode

  • Fixed bug in trace-norm for non-Hermitian operators.

  • Fixed bug related to args not being passed to coherence_function_g2

  • Fixed MKL error checking dict key error

Version 4.2.0 (July 28, 2017)

Improvements

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Initial implementation of time-dependent Bloch-Redfield Solver.

  • Qobj tidyup is now an order of magnitude faster.

  • Time-dependent codegen now generates output NumPy arrays faster.

  • Improved calculation for analytic coefficients in coherent states (Sebastian Kramer).

  • Input array to correlation FFT method now checked for validity.

  • Function-based time-dependent mesolve and sesolve routines now faster.

  • Codegen now makes sure that division is done in C, as opposed to Python.

  • Can now set different controls for a each timeslot in quantum optimization. This allows time-varying controls to be used in pulse optimisation.

Bug Fixes

  • rcsolve importing old Odeoptions Class rather than Options.

  • Non-int issue in spin Q and Wigner functions.

  • Qobj’s should tidyup before determining isherm.

  • Fixed time-dependent RHS function loading on Win.

  • Fixed several issues with compiling with Cython 0.26.

  • Liouvillian superoperators were hard setting isherm=True by default.

  • Fixed an issue with the solver safety checks when inputing a list with Python functions as time-dependence.

  • Fixed non-int issue in Wigner_cmap.

  • MKL solver error handling not working properly.

Version 4.1.0 (March 10, 2017)

Improvements

Core libraries

  • MAJOR FEATURE: QuTiP now works for Python 3.5+ on Windows using Visual Studio 2015.

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Cython and other low level code switched to C++ for MS Windows compatibility.

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Can now use interpolating cubic splines as time-dependent coefficients.

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Sparse matrix - vector multiplication now parallel using OPENMP.

  • Automatic tuning of OPENMP threading threshold.

  • Partial trace function is now up to 100x+ faster.

  • Hermitian verification now up to 100x+ faster.

  • Internal Qobj objects now created up to 60x faster.

  • Inplace conversion from COO -> CSR sparse formats (e.g. Memory efficiency improvement.)

  • Faster reverse Cuthill-Mckee and sparse one and inf norms.

Bug Fixes

  • Cleanup of temp. Cython files now more robust and working under Windows.

Version 4.0.2 (January 5, 2017)

Bug Fixes

  • td files no longer left behind by correlation tests

  • Various fast sparse fixes

Version 4.0.0 (December 22, 2016)

Improvements

Core libraries

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Fast sparse: New subclass of csr_matrix added that overrides commonly used methods to avoid certain checks that incurr execution cost. All Qobj.data now fast_csr_matrix

  • HEOM performance enhancements

  • spmv now faster

  • mcsolve codegen further optimised

Control modules

  • Time dependent drift (through list of pwc dynamics generators)

  • memory optimisation options provided for control.dynamics

Bug Fixes

  • recompilation of pyx files on first import removed

  • tau array in control.pulseoptim funcs now works

Version 3.2.0 (Never officially released)

New Features

Core libraries

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Non-Markovian solvers: Hierarchy (Added by Neill Lambert), Memory-Cascade, and Transfer-Tensor methods.

  • MAJOR FEATURE: Default steady state solver now up to 100x faster using the Intel Pardiso library under the Anaconda and Intel Python distributions.

  • The default Wigner function now uses a Clenshaw summation algorithm to evaluate a polynomial series that is applicable for any number of exciations (previous limitation was ~50 quanta), and is ~3x faster than before. (Added by Denis Vasilyev)

  • Can now define a given eigen spectrum for random Hermitian and density operators.

  • The Qobj expm method now uses the equivilent SciPy routine, and performs a much faster exp operation if the matrix is diagonal.

  • One can now build zero operators using the qzero function.

Control modules

  • MAJOR FEATURE: CRAB algorithm added This is an alternative to the GRAPE algorithm, which allows for analytical control functions, which means that experimental constraints can more easily be added into optimisation. See tutorial notebook for full information.

Improvements

Core libraries

  • Two-time correlation functions can now be calculated for fully time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators. (Added by Kevin Fischer)

  • The code for the inverse-power method for the steady state solver has been simplified.

  • Bloch-Redfield tensor creation is now up to an order of magnitude faster. (Added by Johannes Feist)

  • Q.transform now works properly for arrays directly from sp_eigs (or eig).

  • Q.groundstate now checks for degeneracy.

  • Added sinm and cosm methods to the Qobj class.

  • Added charge and tunneling operators.

  • Time-dependent Cython code is now easier to read and debug.

Control modules

  • The internal state / quantum operator data type can now be either Qobj or ndarray Previous only ndarray was possible. This now opens up possibility of using Qobj methods in fidelity calculations The attributes and functions that return these operators are now preceded by an underscore, to indicate that the data type could change depending on the configuration options. In most cases these functions were for internal processing only anyway, and should have been ‘private’. Accessors to the properties that could be useful outside of the library have been added. These always return Qobj. If the internal operator data type is not Qobj, then there could be signicant overhead in the conversion, and so this should be avoided during pulse optimisation. If custom sub-classes are developed that use Qobj properties and methods (e.g. partial trace), then it is very likely that it will be more efficient to set the internal data type to Qobj. The internal operator data will be chosen automatically based on the size and sparsity of the dynamics generator. It can be forced by setting dynamics.oper_dtype = <type> Note this can be done by passing dyn_params={'oper_dtype':<type>} in any of the pulseoptim functions.

    Some other properties and methods were renamed at the same time. A full list is given here.

    • All modules - function: set_log_level -> property: log_level

    • dynamics functions

      • _init_lists now _init_evo

      • get_num_ctrls now property: num_ctrls

      • get_owd_evo_target now property: onto_evo_target

      • combine_dyn_gen now _combine_dyn_gen (no longer returns a value)

      • get_dyn_gen now _get_phased_dyn_gen

      • get_ctrl_den_gen now _get_phased_ctrl_dyn_gen

      • ensure_decomp_curr now _ensure_decomp_curr

      • spectral_decomp now _spectral_decomp

    • dynamics properties

      • evo_init2t now _fwd_evo (fwd_evo as Qobj)

      • evo_t2end now _onwd_evo (onwd_evo as Qobj)

      • evo_t2targ now _onto_evo (onto_evo as Qobj)

    • fidcomp properties

      • uses_evo_t2end now uses_onwd_evo

      • uses_evo_t2targ now uses_onto_evo

      • set_phase_option function now property phase_option

    • propcomp properties

      • grad_exact (now read only)

    • propcomp functions

      • compute_propagator now _compute_propagator

      • compute_diff_prop now _compute_diff_prop

      • compute_prop_grad now _compute_prop_grad

    • tslotcomp functions

      • get_timeslot_for_fidelity_calc now _get_timeslot_for_fidelity_calc

Miscellaneous

  • QuTiP Travis CI tests now use the Anaconda distribution.

  • The about box and ipynb version_table now display addition system information.

  • Updated Cython cleanup to remove depreciation warning in sysconfig.

  • Updated ipynb_parallel to look for ipyparallel module in V4 of the notebooks.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixes for countstat and psuedo-inverse functions

  • Fixed Qobj division tests on 32-bit systems.

  • Removed extra call to Python in time-dependent Cython code.

  • Fixed issue with repeated Bloch sphere saving.

  • Fixed T_0 triplet state not normalized properly. (Fixed by Eric Hontz)

  • Simplified compiler flags (support for ARM systems).

  • Fixed a decoding error in qload.

  • Fixed issue using complex.h math and np.kind_t variables.

  • Corrected output states mismatch for ntraj=1 in the mcf90 solver.

  • Qobj data is now copied by default to avoid a bug in multiplication. (Fixed by Richard Brierley)

  • Fixed bug overwriting hardware_info in __init__. (Fixed by Johannes Feist)

  • Restored ability to explicity set Q.isherm, Q.type, and Q.superrep.

  • Fixed integer depreciation warnings from NumPy.

  • Qobj * (dense vec) would result in a recursive loop.

  • Fixed args=None -> args={} in correlation functions to be compatible with mesolve.

  • Fixed depreciation warnings in mcsolve.

  • Fixed neagtive only real parts in rand_ket.

  • Fixed a complicated list-cast-map-list antipattern in super operator reps. (Fixed by Stefan Krastanov)

  • Fixed incorrect isherm for sigmam spin operator.

  • Fixed the dims when using final_state_output in mesolve and sesolve.

Version 3.1.0 (January 1, 2015)

New Features

  • MAJOR FEATURE: New module for quantum control (qutip.control).

  • NAMESPACE CHANGE: QuTiP no longer exports symbols from NumPy and matplotlib, so those modules must now be explicitly imported when required.

  • New module for counting statistics.

  • Stochastic solvers now run trajectories in parallel.

  • New superoperator and tensor manipulation functions (super_tensor, composite, tensor_contract).

  • New logging module for debugging (qutip.logging).

  • New user-available API for parallelization (parallel_map).

  • New enhanced (optional) text-based progressbar (qutip.ui.EnhancedTextProgressBar)

  • Faster Python based monte carlo solver (mcsolve).

  • Support for progress bars in propagator function.

  • Time-dependent Cython code now calls complex cmath functions.

  • Random numbers seeds can now be reused for successive calls to mcsolve.

  • The Bloch-Redfield master equation solver now supports optional Lindblad type collapse operators.

  • Improved handling of ODE integration errors in mesolve.

  • Improved correlation function module (for example, improved support for time-dependent problems).

  • Improved parallelization of mcsolve (can now be interrupted easily, support for IPython.parallel, etc.)

  • Many performance improvements, and much internal code restructuring.

Bug Fixes

  • Cython build files for time-dependent string format now removed automatically.

  • Fixed incorrect solution time from inverse-power method steady state solver.

  • mcsolve now supports Options(store_states=True)

  • Fixed bug in hadamard gate function.

  • Fixed compatibility issues with NumPy 1.9.0.

  • Progressbar in mcsolve can now be suppressed.

  • Fixed bug in gate_expand_3toN.

  • Fixed bug for time-dependent problem (list string format) with multiple terms in coefficient to an operator.

Version 3.0.1 (Aug 5, 2014)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix bug in create(), which returned a Qobj with CSC data instead of CSR.

  • Fix several bugs in mcsolve: Incorrect storing of collapse times and collapse operator records. Incorrect averaging of expectation values for different trajectories when using only 1 CPU.

  • Fix bug in parsing of time-dependent Hamiltonian/collapse operator arguments that occurred when the args argument is not a dictionary.

  • Fix bug in internal _version2int function that cause a failure when parsingthe version number of the Cython package.

Version 3.0.0 (July 17, 2014)

New Features

  • New module qutip.stochastic with stochastic master equation and stochastic Schrödinger equation solvers.

  • Expanded steady state solvers. The function steady has been deprecated in favor of steadystate. The steadystate solver no longer use umfpack by default. New pre-processing methods for reordering and balancing the linear equation system used in direct solution of the steady state.

  • New module qutip.qip with utilities for quantum information processing, including pre-defined quantum gates along with functions for expanding arbitrary 1, 2, and 3 qubit gates to N qubit registers, circuit representations, library of quantum algorithms, and basic physical models for some common QIP architectures.

  • New module qutip.distributions with unified API for working with distribution functions.

  • New format for defining time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, using a pre-calculated numpy array that specifies the values of the Qobj-coefficients for each time step.

  • New functions for working with different superoperator representations, including Kraus and Chi representation.

  • New functions for visualizing quantum states using Qubism and Schimdt plots: plot_qubism and plot_schmidt.

  • Dynamics solver now support taking argument e_ops (expectation value operators) in dictionary form.

  • Public plotting functions from the qutip.visualization module are now prefixed with plot_ (e.g., plot_fock_distribution). The plot_wigner and plot_wigner_fock_distribution now supports 3D views in addition to contour views.

  • New API and new functions for working with spin operators and states, including for example spin_Jx, spin_Jy, spin_Jz and spin_state, spin_coherent.

  • The expect function now supports a list of operators, in addition to the previously supported list of states.

  • Simplified creation of qubit states using ket function.

  • The module qutip.cyQ has been renamed to qutip.cy and the sparse matrix-vector functions spmv and spmv1d has been combined into one function spmv. New functions for operating directly on the underlaying sparse CSR data have been added (e.g., spmv_csr). Performance improvements. New and improved Cython functions for calculating expectation values for state vectors, density matrices in matrix and vector form.

  • The concurrence function now supports both pure and mixed states. Added function for calculating the entangling power of a two-qubit gate.

  • Added function for generating (generalized) Lindblad dissipator superoperators.

  • New functions for generating Bell states, and singlet and triplet states.

  • QuTiP no longer contains the demos GUI. The examples are now available on the QuTiP web site. The qutip.gui module has been renamed to qutip.ui and does no longer contain graphical UI elements. New text-based and HTML-based progressbar classes.

  • Support for harmonic oscillator operators/states in a Fock state basis that does not start from zero (e.g., in the range [M,N+1]). Support for eliminating and extracting states from Qobj instances (e.g., removing one state from a two-qubit system to obtain a three-level system).

  • Support for time-dependent Hamiltonian and Liouvillian callback functions that depend on the instantaneous state, which for example can be used for solving master equations with mean field terms.

Improvements

  • Restructured and optimized implementation of Qobj, which now has significantly lower memory footprint due to avoiding excessive copying of internal matrix data.

  • The classes OdeData, Odeoptions, Odeconfig are now called Result, Options, and Config, respectively, and are available in the module qutip.solver.

  • The squeez function has been renamed to squeeze.

  • Better support for sparse matrices when calculating propagators using the propagator function.

  • Improved Bloch sphere.

  • Restructured and improved the module qutip.sparse, which now only operates directly on sparse matrices (not on Qobj instances).

  • Improved and simplified implement of the tensor function.

  • Improved performance, major code cleanup (including namespace changes), and numerous bug fixes.

  • Benchmark scripts improved and restructured.

  • QuTiP is now using continuous integration tests (TravisCI).

Version 2.2.0 (March 01, 2013)

New Features

  • Added Support for Windows

  • New Bloch3d class for plotting 3D Bloch spheres using Mayavi.

  • Bloch sphere vectors now look like arrows.

  • Partial transpose function.

  • Continuos variable functions for calculating correlation and covariance matrices, the Wigner covariance matrix and the logarithmic negativity for for multimode fields in Fock basis.

  • The master-equation solver (mesolve) now accepts pre-constructed Liouvillian terms, which makes it possible to solve master equations that are not on the standard Lindblad form.

  • Optional Fortran Monte Carlo solver (mcsolve_f90) by Arne Grimsmo.

  • A module of tools for using QuTiP in IPython notebooks.

  • Increased performance of the steady state solver.

  • New Wigner colormap for highlighting negative values.

  • More graph styles to the visualization module.

Bug Fixes

  • Function based time-dependent Hamiltonians now keep the correct phase.

  • mcsolve no longer prints to the command line if ntraj=1.

Version 2.1.0 (October 05, 2012)

New Features

  • New method for generating Wigner functions based on Laguerre polynomials.

  • coherent(), coherent_dm(), and thermal_dm() can now be expressed using analytic values.

  • Unittests now use nose and can be run after installation.

  • Added iswap and sqrt-iswap gates.

  • Functions for quantum process tomography.

  • Window icons are now set for Ubuntu application launcher.

  • The propagator function can now take a list of times as argument, and returns a list of corresponding propagators.

Bug Fixes

  • mesolver now correctly uses the user defined rhs_filename in Odeoptions().

  • rhs_generate() now handles user defined filenames properly.

  • Density matrix returned by propagator_steadystate is now Hermitian.

  • eseries_value returns real list if all imag parts are zero.

  • mcsolver now gives correct results for strong damping rates.

  • Odeoptions now prints mc_avg correctly.

  • Do not check for PyObj in mcsolve when gui=False.

  • Eseries now correctly handles purely complex rates.

  • thermal_dm() function now uses truncated operator method.

  • Cython based time-dependence now Python 3 compatible.

  • Removed call to NSAutoPool on mac systems.

  • Progress bar now displays the correct number of CPU’s used.

  • Qobj.diag() returns reals if operator is Hermitian.

  • Text for progress bar on Linux systems is no longer cutoff.

Version 2.0.0 (June 01, 2012)

The second version of QuTiP has seen many improvements in the performance of the original code base, as well as the addition of several new routines supporting a wide range of functionality. Some of the highlights of this release include:

New Features

  • QuTiP now includes solvers for both Floquet and Bloch-Redfield master equations.

  • The Lindblad master equation and Monte Carlo solvers allow for time-dependent collapse operators.

  • It is possible to automatically compile time-dependent problems into c-code using Cython (if installed).

  • Python functions can be used to create arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators.

  • Solvers now return Odedata objects containing all simulation results and parameters, simplifying the saving of simulation results.

Important

This breaks compatibility with QuTiP version 1.x.

  • mesolve and mcsolve can reuse Hamiltonian data when only the initial state, or time-dependent arguments, need to be changed.

  • QuTiP includes functions for creating random quantum states and operators.

  • The generation and manipulation of quantum objects is now more efficient.

  • Quantum objects have basis transformation and matrix element calculations as built-in methods.

  • The quantum object eigensolver can use sparse solvers.

  • The partial-trace (ptrace) function is up to 20x faster.

  • The Bloch sphere can now be used with the Matplotlib animation function, and embedded as a subplot in a figure.

  • QuTiP has built-in functions for saving quantum objects and data arrays.

  • The steady-state solver has been further optimized for sparse matrices, and can handle much larger system Hamiltonians.

  • The steady-state solver can use the iterative bi-conjugate gradient method instead of a direct solver.

  • There are three new entropy functions for concurrence, mutual information, and conditional entropy.

  • Correlation functions have been combined under a single function.

  • The operator norm can now be set to trace, Frobius, one, or max norm.

  • Global QuTiP settings can now be modified.

  • QuTiP includes a collection of unit tests for verifying the installation.

  • Demos window now lets you copy and paste code from each example.

Version 1.1.4 (May 28, 2012)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed bug pointed out by Brendan Abolins.

  • Qobj.tr() returns zero-dim ndarray instead of float or complex.

  • Updated factorial import for scipy version 0.10+

Version 1.1.3 (November 21, 2011)

New Functions

  • Allow custom naming of Bloch sphere.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed text alignment issues in AboutBox.

  • Added fix for SciPy V>0.10 where factorial was moved to scipy.misc module.

  • Added tidyup function to tensor function output.

  • Removed openmp flags from setup.py as new Mac Xcode compiler does not recognize them.

  • Qobj diag method now returns real array if all imaginary parts are zero.

  • Examples GUI now links to new documentation.

  • Fixed zero-dimensional array output from metrics module.

Version 1.1.2 (October 27, 2011)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed issue where Monte Carlo states were not output properly.

Version 1.1.1 (October 25, 2011)

THIS POINT-RELEASE INCLUDES VASTLY IMPROVED TIME-INDEPENDENT MCSOLVE AND ODESOLVE PERFORMANCE

New Functions

  • Added linear entropy function.

  • Number of CPU’s can now be changed.

Bug Fixes

  • Metrics no longer use dense matrices.

  • Fixed Bloch sphere grid issue with matplotlib 1.1.

  • Qobj trace operation uses only sparse matrices.

  • Fixed issue where GUI windows do not raise to front.

Version 1.1.0 (October 04, 2011)

THIS RELEASE NOW REQUIRES THE GCC COMPILER TO BE INSTALLED

New Functions

  • tidyup function to remove small elements from a Qobj.

  • Added concurrence function.

  • Added simdiag for simultaneous diagonalization of operators.

  • Added eigenstates method returning eigenstates and eigenvalues to Qobj class.

  • Added fileio for saving and loading data sets and/or Qobj’s.

  • Added hinton function for visualizing density matrices.

Bug Fixes

  • Switched Examples to new Signals method used in PySide 1.0.6+.

  • Switched ProgressBar to new Signals method.

  • Fixed memory issue in expm functions.

  • Fixed memory bug in isherm.

  • Made all Qobj data complex by default.

  • Reduced ODE tolerance levels in Odeoptions.

  • Fixed bug in ptrace where dense matrix was used instead of sparse.

  • Fixed issue where PyQt4 version would not be displayed in about box.

  • Fixed issue in Wigner where xvec was used twice (in place of yvec).

Version 1.0.0 (July 29, 2011)

  • Initial release.