# Source code for qutip.dimensions

# This file is part of QuTiP: Quantum Toolbox in Python.
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#    Copyright (c) 2011 and later, Paul D. Nation and Robert J. Johansson.
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"""
Internal use module for manipulating dims specifications.
"""

__all__ = [] # Everything should be explicitly imported, not made available
# by default.

import numpy as np
from operator import getitem
from functools import partial

[docs]def is_scalar(dims):
"""
Returns True if a dims specification is effectively
a scalar (has dimension 1).
"""
return np.prod(flatten(dims)) == 1

def is_vector(dims):
return (
isinstance(dims, list) and
isinstance(dims[0], (int, np.integer))
)

def is_vectorized_oper(dims):
return (
isinstance(dims, list) and
isinstance(dims[0], list)
)

def type_from_dims(dims, enforce_square=False):
bra_like, ket_like = map(is_scalar, dims)

if bra_like:
if is_vector(dims[1]):
return 'bra'
elif is_vectorized_oper(dims[1]):
return 'operator-bra'

if ket_like:
if is_vector(dims[0]):
return 'ket'
elif is_vectorized_oper(dims[0]):
return 'operator-ket'

elif is_vector(dims[0]) and (dims[0] == dims[1] or not enforce_square):
return 'oper'

elif (
is_vectorized_oper(dims[0]) and
(
(
dims[0] == dims[1] and
dims[0][0] == dims[1][0]
) or not enforce_square
)
):
return 'super'

return 'other'

[docs]def flatten(l):
"""Flattens a list of lists to the first level.

Given a list containing a mix of scalars and lists,
flattens down to a list of the scalars within the original
list.

Examples
--------

>>> print(flatten([[[0], 1], 2]))
[0, 1, 2]

"""
if not isinstance(l, list):
return [l]
else:
return sum(map(flatten, l), [])

[docs]def deep_remove(l, *what):
"""Removes scalars from all levels of a nested list.

Given a list containing a mix of scalars and lists,
returns a list of the same structure, but where one or
more scalars have been removed.

Examples
--------

>>> print(deep_remove([[[[0, 1, 2]], [3, 4], [5], [6, 7]]], 0, 5))
[[[[1, 2]], [3, 4], [], [6, 7]]]

"""
if isinstance(l, list):
# Make a shallow copy at this level.
l = l[:]
for to_remove in what:
if to_remove in l:
l.remove(to_remove)
else:
l = list(map(lambda elem: deep_remove(elem, to_remove), l))
return l

[docs]def unflatten(l, idxs):
"""Unflattens a list by a given structure.

Given a list of scalars and a deep list of indices
as produced by flatten, returns an "unflattened"
form of the list. This perfectly inverts flatten.

Examples
--------

>>> l = [[[10, 20, 30], [40, 50, 60]], [[70, 80, 90], [100, 110, 120]]]
>>> idxs = enumerate_flat(l)
>>> print(unflatten(flatten(l)), idxs) == l
True

"""
acc = []
for idx in idxs:
if isinstance(idx, list):
acc.append(unflatten(l, idx))
else:
acc.append(l[idx])
return acc

def _enumerate_flat(l, idx=0):
if not isinstance(l, list):
# Found a scalar, so return and increment.
return idx, idx + 1
else:
# Found a list, so append all the scalars
# from it and recurse to keep the increment
# correct.
acc = []
for elem in l:
labels, idx = _enumerate_flat(elem, idx)
acc.append(labels)
return acc, idx

def _collapse_composite_index(dims):
"""
Given the dimensions specification for a composite index
(e.g.: [2, 3] for the right index of a ket with dims [[1], [2, 3]]),
returns a dimensions specification for an index of the same shape,
but collapsed to a single "leg." In the previous example, [2, 3]
would collapse to [6].
"""
return [np.prod(dims)]

def _collapse_dims_to_level(dims, level=1):
"""
Recursively collapses all indices in a dimensions specification
appearing at a given level, such that the returned dimensions
specification does not represent any composite systems.
"""
if level == 0:
return _collapse_composite_index(dims)
else:
return [_collapse_dims_to_level(index, level=level - 1) for index in dims]

[docs]def collapse_dims_oper(dims):
"""
Given the dimensions specifications for a ket-, bra- or oper-type
Qobj, returns a dimensions specification describing the same shape
by collapsing all composite systems. For instance, the bra-type
dimensions specification [[2, 3], [1]] collapses to
[[6], [1]].

Parameters
----------

dims : list of lists of ints
Dimensions specifications to be collapsed.

Returns
-------

collapsed_dims : list of lists of ints
Collapsed dimensions specification describing the same shape
such that len(collapsed_dims[0]) == len(collapsed_dims[1]) == 1.
"""
return _collapse_dims_to_level(dims, 1)

[docs]def collapse_dims_super(dims):
"""
Given the dimensions specifications for an operator-ket-, operator-bra- or
super-type Qobj, returns a dimensions specification describing the same shape
by collapsing all composite systems. For instance, the super-type
dimensions specification [[[2, 3], [2, 3]], [[2, 3], [2, 3]]] collapses to
[[[6], [6]], [[6], [6]]].

Parameters
----------

dims : list of lists of ints
Dimensions specifications to be collapsed.

Returns
-------

collapsed_dims : list of lists of ints
Collapsed dimensions specification describing the same shape
such that len(collapsed_dims[i][j]) == 1 for i and j
in range(2).
"""
return _collapse_dims_to_level(dims, 2)

[docs]def enumerate_flat(l):
"""Labels the indices at which scalars occur in a flattened list.

Given a list containing a mix of scalars and lists,
returns a list of the same structure, where each scalar
has been replaced by an index into the flattened list.

Examples
--------

>>> print(enumerate_flat([[[10], [20, 30]], 40]))
[[[0], [1, 2]], 3]

"""
return _enumerate_flat(l)[0]

def deep_map(fn, collection, over=(tuple, list)):
if isinstance(collection, over):
return type(collection)(deep_map(fn, el, over) for el in collection)
else:
return fn(collection)

[docs]def dims_to_tensor_perm(dims):
"""
Given the dims of a Qobj instance, returns a list representing
a permutation from the flattening of that dims specification to
the corresponding tensor indices.

Parameters
----------

dims : list
Dimensions specification for a Qobj.

Returns
-------

perm : list
A list such that data[flatten(dims)[idx]] gives the
index of the tensor data corresponding to the idxth
dimension of dims.
"""
# We figure out the type of the dims specification,
# relaxing the requirement that operators be square.
# This means that dims_type need not coincide with
# Qobj.type, but that works fine for our purposes here.
dims_type = type_from_dims(dims, enforce_square=False)
perm = enumerate_flat(dims)

# If type is oper, ket or bra, we don't need to do anything.
if dims_type in ('oper', 'ket', 'bra'):
return flatten(perm)

# If the type is other, we need to figure out if the
# dims is superlike on its outputs and inputs
# This is the case if the dims type for left or right
# are, respectively, oper-like.
if dims_type == 'other':
raise NotImplementedError("Not yet implemented for type='other'.")

# If we're still here, the story is more complicated. We'll
# follow the strategy of creating a permutation by using
# enumerate_flat then transforming the result to swap
# input and output indices of vectorized matrices, then flattening
# the result. We'll then rebuild indices using this permutation.

if dims_type in ('operator-ket', 'super'):
# Swap the input and output spaces of the right part of
# perm.
perm[1] = list(reversed(perm[1]))

if dims_type in ('operator-bra', 'super'):
# Ditto, but for the left indices.
perm[0] = list(reversed(perm[0]))

return flatten(perm)

[docs]def dims_to_tensor_shape(dims):
"""
Given the dims of a Qobj instance, returns the shape of the
corresponding tensor. This helps, for instance, resolve the
column-stacking convention for superoperators.

Parameters
----------

dims : list
Dimensions specification for a Qobj.

Returns
-------

tensor_shape : tuple
NumPy shape of the corresponding tensor.
"""

perm = dims_to_tensor_perm(dims)
dims = flatten(dims)

return tuple(map(partial(getitem, dims), perm))

[docs]def dims_idxs_to_tensor_idxs(dims, indices):
"""
Given the dims of a Qobj instance, and some indices into
dims, returns the corresponding tensor indices. This helps
resolve, for instance, that column-stacking for superoperators,
oper-ket and oper-bra implies that the input and output tensor
indices are reversed from their order in dims.

Parameters
----------

dims : list
Dimensions specification for a Qobj.

indices : int, list or tuple
Indices to convert to tensor indices. Can be specified
as a single index, or as a collection of indices.
In the latter case, this can be nested arbitrarily
deep. For instance, [0, [0, (2, 3)]].

Returns
-------

tens_indices : int, list or tuple
Container of the same structure as indices containing
the tensor indices for each element of indices.
"""

perm = dims_to_tensor_perm(dims)
return deep_map(partial(getitem, perm), indices)